US researchers have learned to check the calculations in quantum computers, creating an analog error correction technology present in modern computing systems. This is one of the major problems, without which quantum computers would be useless.
Researchers from Google Inc., along with colleagues from the University of California at Santa Barbara found a solution to one of the problems preventing the emergence of quantum computers, according to Wired.
In modern computer systems are all simple data operations tested for errors. This procedure avoids the effects of external influences on the system and verify the accuracy of the final result.
But if a modern PC or server such check is easily done in a quantum system that is not possible by conventional methods, as the procedure for measuring the qubit (the smallest element for storing information) and change its state by itself cause an error.
To avoid changing the state of the qubit during measurement of his condition, the researchers added extra qubits quantum system – four to five existing ones. Etit four qubit perform only one function – to check the status of other items of information. They do this so that the state of the top five qubits does not change.
However, this solution leads to another difficulty, the expert on quantum mechanics at the Institute of Theoretical Physics in Canada “Perimeter” Daniel Gottesman (Daniel Gottesman). He drew attention in particular to the fact that the check for errors in the quantum system will require a significant amount of electrical energy – in addition to the already considerable volumes, which will consume itself a quantum computer.
Quantum processor with five and four qubits to check for errors
However, without checking the quantum system is devoid of meaning, the researchers said. “To create a practical quantum computer have to solve the problem of accidentally changing the state of the qubits, there’s no escape – said Fowler Austin (Austin Fowler), one of the participants in the project engineer quantum electronics from Google.
A quantum computer based on this concept in quantum mechanics as a superposition, the scientists explain. Superposition – a phenomenon in which a physical object, such as an atom or an electron (which quantum computer uses to store information), located in several alternative from the point of view of classical mechanics states. ” Scientists believe that computers based on this aspect of quantum mechanics, in the future will run millions of times faster than today’s computers.
In September 2014, Google announced its intention to engage in self-development, manufacturing and testing of processors for quantum systems. To do this, the corporation has invited a team of scientists led by John Martinez (John Martinis) from the University of California at Santa Barbara. This group in April 2014 has developed a simple prototype quantum processor capable of reliably operate five qubits. Achieving scientists was widely covered in the scientific press, including the popular magazine Nature, a team leader was Fritz London Prize, which is awarded for outstanding contributions in the field of low-temperature physics.
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